Annotated list of shorebirds (waders) of the world



Jacanas (Jacanidae)

Lesser Jacana (Microparra capensis)
Range: subsaharan Africa

African Jacana (Actophilornis africana) 
Range: subsaharan Africa

Madagascar Jacana (Actophilornis albinucha)
Range: Madagascar

Comb-crested Jacana (Irediparra gallinacea)
Range: N. Australia, Indonesia

Pheasant-tailed Jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus)
Range: southern Asia

Bronze-winged Jacana (Metopidius indicus)
Range: southern Asia

Northern Jacana (Jacana spinosa)
Range: central America, Caribbean

Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana)
Range: South America


Painted Snipe (Rostratulidae)

Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis) 
Range: old world tropics

South American Painted Snipe (Nycticryphes semicollaris)
Range: southern South America



Crab Plover (Dromadidae)

Crab Plover Dromas ardeola
Range: coastal southwestern Asia and eastern Africa



Oystercatchers (Haematopodidae)

An American Oystercatcher awaits the falling tide. Broad Channel near Jamaica Bay, New York, 5 May 2002. Photo copyright Angus Wilson©.
Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus)
Range: Eurasia

American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus)
Range: southern North America, through South America, coastally

American Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) 
Range: coastal western North America

African Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus moquini)
Range: southern African coast

Canarian Black Oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoi
Range: Canary Islands

Variable Oystercatcher (Haematopus unicolor) 
Range: New Zealand

Chatham Islands Oystercatcher (Haematopus chathamensis) 
Range: Chatham Islands, east of New Zealand

Magellanic Oystercatcher Haematopus leucopodus
Range: extreme southern South America

Pied Oystercatcher (Haematopus longirostris)
Range: coastal Australia

South Island Pied Oystercatcher () 
Range: New Zealand, coastal SE Australia

Blackish Oystercatcher (Haematopus ater)
Range: coastal southern and western South America

Sooty Oystercatcher (Haematopus fuliginosus)
Range: coastal Australia


Ibisbill (Ibidorhynchidae)

Ibisbill (Ibidorhyncha struthersii)
Range: south-central Asia


Avocets and Stilts (Recurvirostridae)

Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) 
Range: worldwide

Black Stilt (Himantopus novaezelandiae) 
Range: New Zealand

Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus)
Range: southern Australia

Pied Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta) 
Range: Africa, Eurasia

American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) 
Range: North America

Red-necked Avocet (Recurvirostra novaehollandiae)
Range: Australia

Andean Avocet (Recurvirostra andina)
Range: central Andes, South America



Thick-knees (Burhinidae)

Stone-curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus) 
Range: Europe, southwestern Asia, north Africa

Senegal Thick-knee (Burhinus senegalensis)
Range: central Africa

Water Dikkop (Burhinus vermiculatus) 
Range: subsaharan Africa

Spotted Dikkop (Burhinus capensis) 
Range: subsaharan Africa

Double-striped Thick-knee (Burhinus bistriatus)
Range: C America, Northern S America, Caribbean

Peruvian Thick-knee (Burhinus superciliaris)
Range: coastal Peru, S America

Bush Thick-knee (Burhinus magnirostris)
Range: Australia

Great Thick-knee Esacus (Burhinus recurvirostris)
Range: India, Malaysia

Beach Thick-knee Esacus (Burhinus magnirostris)
Range: from southern Malaysia through Australia



Coursers and Pratincoles (Glareolidae)

Egytian Plover Pluvianus aegyptius
Range: subsaharan Africa (local)

Two-banded Courser Rhinoptilus africanus
Range: E and S Africa

Heuglin's Courser Rhinoptilus cinctus
Range: E Africa

Violet-tipped Courser Rhinoptilus chalcopterus
Range: subsaharan Africa

Jerdon's Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus
Range: SE India

Cream-colored Courser Cursoius cursor
Range: saharan Africa

Burchell's Courser Cursoius rufus
Range: S Africa, and horn of Africa

Indian Courser Cursoius coromandelicus
Range: India

Temminick's Courser Cursoius temminckii
Range: subsaharan Africa

Australian Pratincole Stiltia isabella
Range: Indonesia, Australia

Common Pratincole Glareola pratincola 
Range: Europe, european Asia, Africa

Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum 
Range: southern Asia through Australia

Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni
Range: european Asia, Africa

Madagascar Pratincole Glareola ocularis
Range: Madagascar, adjacent Africa

Rock Pratincole Glareola nuchalis
Range: subsaharan Africa

Grey Pratincole Glareola cinerea
Range: WC Africa

Little Pratincole Glareola lactea
Range: India and Malaysia


Plovers and kin (Charadriidae)

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) 
Range: Eurasia

Long-toed Lapwing (Vanellus crassirostris)
Range: SE Africa

Blacksmith Plover (Vanellus spinosus) 
Range: S Africa

Spur-winged Plover (Vanellus spinosus)
Range: C Africa, Nile River Valley, adjacent S Asia

River Lapwing (Vanellus duvaucelii)
Range: SE Asia

Black-headed Plover (Vanellus tectus)
Range: C Africa just south of the sahara

Yellow-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus malabaricus)
Range: India

Senegal Wattled Plover (Vanellus senegallus)
Range: subsaharan Africa

White-headed Lapwing (Vanellus albiceps)
Range: subsaharan Africa

Senegal Plover (Vanellus lugubris)
Range: SC Africa

Black-winged Plover (Vanellus melanopterus) 
Range: E Africa

Brown-chested Plover (Vanellus superciliosus)
Range: C Africa

Spot-breasted Plover (Vanellus melanocephalus)
Range: local in NE Africa

Sociable Plover (Vanellus gregarius)
Range: european Asia, SW Asia, NE Africa

White-tailed Plover (Vanellus leucurus)
Range: european Asia, SW Asia, NE Africa

Crowned Lapwing (Vanellus coronatus) 
Range: S and E Africa

Pied Plover (Vanellus cayanus)
Range: Central and northern S America

Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis)
Range: S America

Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens)
Range: C Andes, S America

Grey-headed Lapwing (Vanellus cinereus)
Range: northeastern China, Japan, Malaysia

Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus)
Range: S Asia

Javanese Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus macropterus)
Range: Java

Banded Lapwing (Vanellus tricolor)
Range: S Australia

Masked Lapwing (Vanellus miles) 
Range: E Australiasia, New Zealand to New Guinea

Eurasian Golden Plover (Pluvialis apricaria) 
Range: Europe and W Asia

Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica) 
Range: Pacific rim, Australasia

American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica) 
Range: Americas

Grey Plover [Black-bellied Plover](Pluvialis squatarola) 
Range: world wide New Zealand Dotterel (Charadrius obscurus) 
Range: New Zealand

Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula) 
Range: Asia, Africa, Greenland and adjacent N America

Semi-palmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) 
Range: Americas

Long-billed Plover (Charadrius placidus) 
Range: E Asia

Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius) 
Range: Eurasia, Indonesia, Africa

Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia) 
Range: southern N America to northern S America

Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) 
Range: North America through northern South America

Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) 
Range: E and Central North America

Black-banded Sandplover (Charadrius thoracicus)
Range: S Madagascar

Kittlitz's Sandplover (Charadrius pecuarius)
Range: subsaharan Africa

St. Helena Plover (Charadrius sanctaehelenae)
Range: St. Helena Island in Atlantic off Africa

Three-banded Plover (Charadrius tricollaris) 
Range: central E and S Africa

Forbes's Plover Charadrius forbesi
Range: CW Africa

Snowy (Kentish) Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) 
Range: world wide

White-fronted Sandplover (Charadrius marginatus) 
Range: subsaharan Africa

Red-capped Plover (Charadrius ruficapillus)
Range: Australia

Malaysian Plover (Charadrius peronii)
Range: S Malaysia, Indonesia

Chestnut-banded Sandplover (Charadrius pallidus)
Range: S Africa

Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris) 
Range: C and S America

Puna Plover (Charadrius alticola)
Range: C Andes, S America
Double-banded Plover (Charadrius bicinctus) 
Range: Australia, New Zealand

Two-banded Plover (Charadrius falklandicus)
Range: coastal southern S America
Lesser [Mongolian] Sandplover (Charadrius mongolus) 
Range: Asia through Australia and E Africa
Greater Sandplover (Charadrius leschenaultii) 
Range: Asia through Australia and E Africa

Caspian Plover (Charadrius asiaticus)
Range: Asia, E Africa

Oriental Plover (Charadrius veredus)
Range: E Asia through Australia

Rufous-chested Dotterel (Charadrius modestus)
Range: southern S America
Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus) 
Range: western N America

Black-fronted Plover (Charadrius melanops)
Range: Australia, New Zealand

Red-kneed Dotterel (Charadrius cinctus)
Range: Australia

Hooded Plover (Charadrius rubricollis)
Range: S Australia
Shore Plover (Thinornis novaeseelandiae) 
Range: Chatham Islands off New Zeland
Wrybill (Anarhynchus frontalis) 
Range: New Zealand

Diademed Plover (Phegornis mitchellii)
Range: Andes, S America

Inland Dotterel (Peltohyas australis)
Range: Australia
Eurasian Dotterel (Eudromias morinellus) 
Range: Eurasia, N Africa

Tawny-throated Dotterel (Oreopholus ruficollis)
Range: western and southern S America



Magellanic Plover (Pluvianellidae)

Magellanic Plover (Pluvianellus socialis)
Range: southern S America


Sandpipers and others (Scolopacidae)

Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) 
Range: Eurasia, Africa, India, SE Asia and Australia

Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica) 
Range: The Americas
Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) 
Range: Eurasia, Africa and Australasia
Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa) 
Range: North and Central America


Curlews

Little Curlew Numenius minutus
Range: Asia through Australia

Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis
Range: North and South America locally (possibly extinct?)
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus 
Range: world wide

Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis
Range: western Alaska (North America) and southern Pacific islands

Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris
Range: extremely local in central Asia and northern Africa (range essentially unknown at this point)
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata 
Range: Eurasia through Africa
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis 
Range: north east Asia through Australia
Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus 
Range: North America
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda 
Range: North and South America


Tringid Sandpipers

Roosting waders at Mai Po, Hong Kong, April 2001. The majority are Common Redshank with smaller numbers of Marsh Sandpiper, Curlew Sandpiper, Asiatic Black-tailed Godwit and a single Great Knot. Photo copyright Angus Wilson©.
Spotted Redshank (Tringa erythropus) 
Range: Asia and Africa

Common Redshank (Tringa totanus) 
Range: Asia and Africa

Marsh Sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) 
Range: Asia, Africa, Australia

Common Greenshank (Tringa nebularia) 
Range: Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia

Nordmann's (Spotted) Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) 
Range: coastal E and SE Asia

Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) 
Range: Americas

Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) 
Range: Americas

Green Sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) 
Range: Asia and Africa

Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria) 
Range: Americas

Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) 
Range: Old world

Eastern Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus) 
Range: Eastern North America (coastal)

Western Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus) 
Range: Western and Central North America

Terek Sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) 
Range: Old World

Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) 
Range: Old world

Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) 
Range: Americas

Grey-tailed Tattler (Heteroscelus brevipes)
Range: E Asia through Australia

Wandering Tattler (Heteroscelus incanus) 
Range: western N America, S Pacific

Tuamotu Sandpiper (Prosobonia cancellata)
Range: Tuamotu island in central Pacific

White-winged Sandpiper (Prosobonia leucoptera)
Range: ? Extinct?
Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) 
Range: world wide

Black Turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala) 
Range: western N America



Phalaropes

A Wilson's Phalarope wanders amongst a group of roosting Short-billed Dowitchers and Black-bellied Plover at Jamaica Bay National Wildlife Refuge, New York, 12 August 2001. Photo copyright Angus Wilson©.
Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor) 
Range: The Americas
Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus) 
Range: Almost worldwide
Grey Phalarope (Phalaorpus fulicarius) 
Range: Almost worldwide


True Snipe

A  Wilson's Snipe probes for worms in a flooded freshwater pool at Montezuma, National Wildlife Refuge in upsate New York, 1 September 2001. Photo copyright Angus Wilson©.
Eurasian Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) 
Range: Eurasia, N Africa
Amami Woodcock (Scolopax mira) 
Range: Subset of the Ryukyu Islands in southern Japan

Dusky Woodcock (Scolopax saturata)
Range: Indonesia

Celebes Woodcock (Scolopax celebensis)
Range: Celebes islands

Bukidnon Woodcock (Scolopax bukidnonensis)
Range: Philippines - central and northern Luzon and four mountains on Mindanao.

Obi Woodcock (Scolopax rochussenii)
Range: locally Indonesia, probably extinct
American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) 
Range: Eastern North America
Subantarctic Snipe [New Zealand] Snipe (Coenocorypha aucklandica) 
Range: Subantarctic island south of New Zealand

Chatham Islands Snipe (Coenocorypha pusilla)
Range: The Chatham Islands off New Zealand

Solitary Snipe (Gallinago solitaria)
Range: Eastern Asia

Japanese Snipe (Gallinago hardwickii)
Range: Japan to Eastern Australia

Wood Snipe (Gallinago nemoricola)
Range: SE Asia through India
Pintail Snipe (Gallinago stenura) 
Range: Central and Eastern Asia

Swinhoe's Snipe (Gallinago megala)
Range: Eastern Asia to Northern Australia
African Snipe (Gallinago nigripennis)
Range: Subsaharan eastern Africa

Madagascar Snipe (Gallinago macrodactyla)
Range: Madagascar

Great Snipe (Gallinago media)
Range: Europe, European Asia, Africa
Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) 
Range: Old World (Europe, Asia) north of equator
Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago gallinago delicata) 
Range: North America

Magellan Snipe (Gallinago paraguaiae)
Range: South America

Noble Snipe (Gallinago nobilis)
Range: northwestern South America

Giant Snipe (Gallinago undulata)
Range: northern and east central South America

Cordilleran Snipe (Gallinago stricklandii)
Range: southern South America

Andean Snipe (Gallinago jamesoni)
Range: northern Andes, South America

Imperial Snipe (Gallinago imperialis)
Range: local, Peru, South America
Jack Snipe (Lymnocryptes minimus) 
Range: Eurasia, Africa



Calidrid Sandpipers and allies
Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus) 
Range: North America through central South America, primarily coastally in winter Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus) 
Range: Breeds in coastal Siberia, northwestern Alaska and arctic Canada. Winters locally across North America, Central and South America.
Asiatic Dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus)
Range: Asia to Australia
Surfbird (Limnodromus virgata) 
Range: western coasts of North, Central and South America
Red Knot (Calidris canutus) 
Range: world wide
Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris) 
Range: eastern Asia to Australia
Sanderling (Calidris alba) 
Range: world wide
Semi-palmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) 
Range: North America through Central and South America
Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) 
Range: North America to northern South America
Red-necked Stint (Calidris minuta) 
Range: eastern Asia through Australia
Little Stint (Calidris minuta) 
Range: Asia through Africa
Temminck's Stint (Calidris temminckii) 
Range: Asia through central Africa

Long-toed Stint (Calidris subminuta) 
Range: eastern Asia through Australia

Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla) 
Range: North America, Central America and South America

White-rumped Sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis) 
Range: The Americas

Baird's Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii) 
Range: The Americas

Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos) 
Range: The Americas, east Asia through Australia

Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (Calidris acuminata) 
Range: eastern Asia to Australia

[Cox's Sandpiper 'Calidris paramelanotos']
Now confirmed by DNA analysis as a Curlew Sandpiper x Pectoral Sandpiper hybrid
Most regularly encountered in southern Australia

Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima) 
Range: coastal northwestern Eurasia and eastern North America

Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) 
Range: northern Pacific basin, Japan to central California

Dunlin (Calidris alpina) 
Range: new world north of tropics, old world north of equator Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferrugnea) 
Range: Asia through Africa and Australia

Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmaeus)
Range: coastal eastern Siberia through southern Asia

Broad-billed Sandpiper (Limicola falcinellus) 
Range: northern Europe, Asia, though Australia

Stilt Sandpiper (Micropalama himantopus) 
Range: The Americas

Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis) 
Range: North, Central and South America

Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) 
Range: Old World (Europe, Asia, Africa)


Seedsnipes (Thinocoridae)

Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe (Attagis gayi)
Range: western S America

White-bellied Seedsnipe (Attagis malouinus)
Range: southern S America

Grey-breasted Seedsnipe (Thinocorus orbignyianus)
Range: western S America

Least Seedsnipe (Thinocorus rumicivorus)
Range: western and southern S America



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All text and photos copyright of Angus Wilson© 2002